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Antaḥkaraṇa: Exploring the Inner Landscape

Focus of the Month: May 2024

written by Marlene


Have you ever felt overwhelmed by the dynamics of your own mind? Or frustrated how your thoughts and emotions play games with you? I for sure have and wanted to understand the ways in which my inner landscape unfolds for a long time. 

As I looked into yoga philosophy for answers, I studied a concept which brought more clarity into the fog of my inner world and which I would like to share with you today.

“Yoga chitta vritti nirodha” (Yoga Sutra 1.2) 

“Yoga is the stilling of the fluctuations of the mind.” 


Antaḥkaraṇa (अन्तःकरण) - it is a concept that encapsulates the totality of the mental dynamics.


Rooted in ancient yogic teachings, the term Antaḥkaraṇa as its extensively described in the Upanishads refers to the intricate interplay of our thoughts, emotions, and consciousness. Antar meaning “Inner” and Karana meaning “instrument" or  “that which functions”. Understanding and harnessing the power of Antahkarana can significantly enhance our yoga practice, both on and off the mat. In this focus of the month, we'll delve into the essence of Antahkarana, offering insights and practical tips to help you connect with this concept in your own life.


The Essence of Antahkarana


In yogic philosophy, the mind is seen as multifaceted and is often divided into different components. The Antahkarana is one common understanding of the totality of mind and seen as the bridge that links our conscious and subconscious minds. It encompasses four key components:


  1.  Manas (The thinking Mind): This facet represents our conscious mind, responsible for perception, cognition, and decision-making. It's the part of us that interacts with the external world.

  2. Buddhi (The discerning Intellect): Buddhi is the discriminating intellect, capable of discerning right from wrong and guiding us towards higher understanding and wisdom.

  3. Chitta (The subconscious Mind): Chitta is the storehouse of all our experiences, memories, and impressions. It's the seat of our emotions, desires, and the source of our conditioned responses.

  4. Ahamkara (The Ego or sense of Self): Ahamkara is the egoic identity, the sense of 'I' that shapes our self-image and influences our actions and reactions. 


"The most important thing is transforming our minds, for a new way of thinking, a new outlook: we should strive to develop a new inner world." - Dalai Lama XIV

Antahkarana as a wheel


The four functions of mind (Manas, Buddhi, Chitta, Ahamkara) are described in the Upanishads as being like a wheel with four components, dynamic and interconnected structure that propels our journey towards self-realization. Just as a wheel is composed of various components working in harmony to enable motion, so too is the Antahkarana comprised of intricate facets that drive our inner evolution.


  1. The Hub: Manas (the Mind): At the center of the wheel lies the hub, representing the mind, or "Manas". This is where sensory input is received and processed, forming the foundation of our thoughts and perceptions. Much like the hub coordinates the rotation of a wheel, the mind orchestrates the flow of information and interpretations within our consciousness.

  2. The Spokes: Buddhi (the Intellect) and Chitta (the Memory): Radiating from the hub, the spokes symbolize Buddhi (the intellect) and Chitta (the subconscious). Buddhi acts as the discerning force, responsible for making decisions, distinguishing between right and wrong, and illuminating our path forward. Chitta, on the other hand, serves as the repository of experiences, etching each moment into the fabric of our consciousness. Together, they form the spokes that support our cognitive framework.

  3. The Rim: Ahamkara (the Ego): Surrounding the spokes, the rim signifies Ahamkara, the ego. This is the aspect of our consciousness that shapes our identity, defining who we believe ourselves to be. Like the rim provides structure and stability to a wheel, the ego provides a sense of self, allowing us to interact with the world around us.


The Wheel in Motion: Dynamics of Antahkarana


As the wheel of Antahkarana turns, these components work in concert, shaping our thoughts, emotions, and actions. The mind receives impressions, the intellect processes them, the memory stores them, and the ego interprets them within the context of our self-identity. This cyclical process forms the basis of our perception and response to the world.


Just as a well-maintained wheel ensures a smooth and efficient journey, nurturing the Antahkarana through practices like meditation, self-reflection, and mindfulness facilitates a balanced and harmonious inner landscape.


A Personal Journey with Antahkarana


Like many on the yogic path, I initially found the concept of Antahkarana to be somewhat abstract. However, as I delved deeper into my practice, I began to notice its presence in every facet of my practice and even off the mat in my life. In moments of inner turmoil, I could sense the intricate dance between my thoughts, emotions, and intuitive knowing. Recognizing Antahkarana allowed me to navigate these waters with greater clarity and compassion.


Connecting with Antahkarana On and Off the Mat


Mindful Awareness:

  • On the mat: Begin your practice with a few moments of mindful awareness. Notice the thoughts, sensations, and emotions that arise without judgment.

  • Off the mat: Extend this practice to your daily life. Before reacting to a situation, take a breath and observe your thoughts and emotions. This moment of awareness can prevent impulsive reactions.


Balancing the Manas & Buddhi:

  • On the mat: As you move through asanas, pay attention to the interplay between your conscious mind (Manas) and your discriminating intellect (Buddhi). Allow them to work in harmony to guide your movements.

  • Off the mat: When faced with decisions, take a moment to weigh your options. Listen to the wisdom of your Buddhi, which often speaks in subtle whispers, guiding you towards the best course of action.


Clearing the Chitta:

  • On the mat: Through breathwork and meditation, aim to clear the clutter of the subconscious mind (Chitta). As you do, you'll find a deeper sense of peace and presence in your practice.

  • Off the mat: Engage in practices like journaling or meditation to unearth and release buried emotions and impressions. This process can lead to greater emotional freedom and mental clarity.


Transcending the Ahamkara:

  • On the mat: Challenge yourself to let go of the need for external validation or achieving a specific posture. Instead, focus on the journey within, free from the confines of ego.

  • Off the mat: Cultivate a sense of humility and surrender in your daily interactions. Recognize that true strength lies in vulnerability and authenticity, not in bolstering the ego.


Antahkarana invites us to embark on a profound journey within ourselves, uncovering the intricate tapestry of our minds. By weaving this concept into our yoga practice and daily lives, we unlock the potential for greater self-awareness, compassion, and wisdom.


This month I invite you to bring space between the trigger and the action by taking a pause to listen, notice which part of your mind is in play, and let it be a guiding light on your path.



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